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You're looking at the mountain that once did the secrets of the third Reich's nuclear program.
I'm Oliver North this is war stories.
Weren't they -- -- museum and tiger -- German.
During the latter days of World War II this cave -- Germany's most advanced nuclear reactor at target.
But top secret allied task force.
For April of 1945.
Scientists at Los -- -- -- we're just weeks away from testing the world's first atomic bomb.
As a Nazi war machine crumbled German scientists were on the run.
Everyone wanted to know what they knew especially the Soviets the stakes couldn't have been -- Tonight you'll meet the men behind -- secret race for the atomic bomb.
First -- was pretty good second -- was also very good I think it -- that.
For people to imagine that we all the size of grapefruit.
Could blow up the city how does that happen.
Particle physics the idea that massive amounts of energy to be created from a single source of matter.
In the early part of the twentieth century the race to discover the secret of the -- -- upon.
Nuclear physics with the new science.
Richard Rhodes is the author of the Pulitzer Prize winning book the making of the atomic bomb.
Because there was the possibility.
As everyone understood the potentially releasing.
Huge news sources and it was a very exciting.
The holy Grail of atomic physics was filed a Nazi Germany in 1938.
It's late December just before Christmas in Berlin and institute -- because until -- institute for chemistry.
That was Nazi war machine was on the rise.
German troops and annexed Austria in the so definitely.
And a German radio campus of great ability -- -- -- -- Those slots are bombarding a solution of uranium nitrate with nutrients.
And they're getting stuff out of the solution this shouldn't be and -- slowly -- -- -- -- Hillary could be -- that they split from him.
What do out of -- young assistants was -- was born -- stories caught up with his son doctor -- -- born in Munich this is a remarkable event.
The first time he had was split is here in Germany.
-- it's true.
As a matter of fact sentences.
Splitting itself what was never observed.
-- it didn't know that there wasn't finishing.
It was this woman physicist -- whitener -- confirmed the discovery -- -- Austrian Jew fled Nazi Germany in 1938.
The splitting of the -- made news with the help of Paul rust spot.
The man who helped -- -- escape.
-- -- -- This was seen here.
Scientific editor in Germany -- On -- costly paper and the -- within a week.
Of that journals of -- around the world every -- who has any sensible what -- Has figured out that the speech -- The atomic genie was out of the bottle.
Military labs and the United States France England and Japan -- -- nuclear research.
The same was true in Stalin's Soviet Union.
Scientists they're spent most of their time thinking about which country could build a bomb first.
For instance your explorer was one -- in -- -- Believe.
If anybody would have built a ball you'll forget that we'll be breaking all the United States but it would have been children.
Hitler wasn't so sure.
Enough Hitler was an educated or should perhaps a self educated and so when he heard about the possibility of a big new Bob -- Nuclear energy he laughed -- they view the lab scientists will blow up the world.
Despite Hitler's reservations the German war office set up a top secret uranium project in Berlin.
By the summer of 1939.
The Third -- -- -- -- exporting uranium raising eyebrows in America.
Well our concern.
Was wore out where the chairman stepped -- at the time -- Agnew was a young physics student and a future member of the Manhattan Project.
Because the senator for all that your search had been in -- This was their reach and expertise in nuclear physics quantum mechanics -- Heisenberg.
-- -- The whole gang Carl -- vice -- was the son of the German undersecretary of state.
He was experimenting with the uranium at the Kaiser bill -- institute.
His colleagues Werner Heisenberg.
Was the third -- top physicist unlike Albert Einstein and most of Germany's top scientists -- -- -- refused to leave the fatherland.
He would lead to Nazis knew.
-- hasn't heard -- brilliant young German.
-- -- -- Lots of energy he was -- -- about -- but also loyal German.
Albert Einstein was worried about the brilliant but now dangerous Heisenberg.
August 2 1939.
Einstein wrote this urgent letter to president Roosevelt warning of the dangers of -- -- nuclear bomb.
That letter got -- maybe tweaked but I've really started it.
It devolved to a committee that was -- go ahead scientists from the Department of Agriculture.
Who happened to -- feel paranoid about secrecy and the word just to get around.
One month after the letter was sent it was tanks rolled in the whole Euro was at war.
Yeah connecting for his bombs rained down on Britain Europe's leading scientists including many former Germans were pulled together by the British war office their mission.
To hammer out a plan to build a nuclear bomb for use against Germany.
And how much uranium would it take.
They had thought vaguely that might be several times but when they really did the numbers were completely that the applicant could become with a couple pounds.
In 1941 the blueprint to the bomb behold the log report was given FDR science advisor than ever bush.
And turned it over to vice president Henry Wallace.
And it went no further as science took a backseat to America's preparations for war.
The vast amount of things needed to be done Robert Stanton Lawrence is the author of the book racing for the bomb.
Size of the army between the wars was about a 135000.
About sixteenth or seventeenth in the world.
So all of these preparations had to be made about training.
General George Marshall -- -- -- -- talented engineer in West Point graduate to build the foundation.
Which are rapidly growing military could deploy.
Huge I can't projects.
Military training camps commission plans.
Depots airfields factories and gross built.
Good share of the one task that he had this very well -- that he -- pentagon.
This she accomplished in about sixteen months.
Meanwhile the American nuclear research effort was stuck in the -- We were all essentially new learning -- new part of science which.
Many economists had known her much about by comparison Heisenberg uranium project of nearly 200 scientists working full speech.
The Nazis had a three year head start over the allies.
But December 1941 secret plans for an atomic bomb project were shown to FDR and in fact the crucial meeting was held the morning before.
So the timing was exquisite.
The race was home.
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