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-- witness to mankind and it's worse I got a construct.
Right through plays when it's being named -- -- -- -- -- risking their lives under every single step.
We could be shot even breaking the room.
Where they introduced into the Vietnam and I.
Bring you the truth.
Just lower house now a special tribute to recall he was killed this -- series and all war correspondents.
In deadlock on the battlefield.
I'm all over north.
This is more stories.
To the worst and best of mankind.
They make their deadlines on the battlefield.
They're war course -- your witness on the front lines it's never been an easy job.
And it's always been dangerous.
Tonight you'll meet these journalist and hear their stories about some of the most riveting moments in history.
-- also learn the stories behind these Pulitzer Prize winning photographs.
A picture may be worth a thousand words but it doesn't tell you every.
You'll hear from Rupert Murdoch and how -- father went up against -- general to save the lives of his countrymen in the trenches of World War I.
Along for a glimpse of combat journalism.
What some of called the first draft.
War correspondents have to be able to deal with.
Absolutely anything -- distract us yesterday it was so.
This activity work.
You can still play eighteen months -- -- that I -- to enable.
All of the wars that you've written about.
Which one was most accurately reported as it happens.
But after sitting home and Phillip Knightley is both the journalist and an officer the first casualty in -- his in depth study of war.
William how rough he was -- -- Civilians sent to the problem Portland general before the war.
The war was fought here in the Crimea a part of Eastern Europe now called the Ukraine.
-- begin -- 1853.
Over control of holy sites in Jerusalem Nazareth and -- six countries including great Britain and France against -- Almost a 100000 British troops committed to the flight the times of London and that reporter.
William Howard Russell to the front we have tremendous treasure of documents relating to Russell's career we have fifty years of his personal diary.
-- dais managers archives at the times of London.
-- in print for over 200 years in the 1981 was purchased by news -- which also owns Fox News -- became.
Basically focused on android thing that's great importance to the the whole concept of -- descriptive writing.
And witness the Irish born Russell was 34 when he traveled to the Crimea.
And this his first diary entry from the field in 1950 for you -- the days and times that mail left for one.
Story only mattered if -- could get it back to his newspaper.
Journey of over 15100.
Miles just took about three weeks ago.
-- So -- it -- -- there was no immediacy.
A British soldier serving in the Crimea -- three times more likely to die of disease.
And at the hands of the enemy.
Tightness cholera and -- Terry savage the ranks.
-- -- Brussels graphic Frontline report.
Fired Florence Nightingale to improve medical conditions in the field.
Brussels -- also captured there's -- charge of the British forces brigade.
700 search direct -- the Russian -- what is apple building boom.
It was fell on horseback.
Russell described it this way.
The flight was marked by instant gaps in Iraq by -- and of course I fly we'll be right across the plane.
The -- that they -- but as a treatment right from the beginning.
We get with the dilemma that he thinks -- -- the dilemma that's been -- war correspondent.
Whose side -- you who cider you -- It's a question asked of every reporter when -- -- something the generals or politicians.
I was blacklisted by Saddam in 96.
Recalled -- -- -- an Oyster Bay just outside New York City.
A college she thought she was going to be a marine biologists but -- stint with -- school newspaper changed her mind.
-- -- kind of no credentials to do anything well.
In 1986 at the age of third league -- Thursday's food -- bank and -- -- some reporters to have -- come back.
That April the US attacked -- in retaliation for -- market -- -- involvement.
The terrorist bombing of -- west Berlin this get that at the time I was the coordinator for the US government's counterterrorism effort.
Heavily involved in planning the operation did you think at the time.
Knew where -- -- when we talk about the central tapes he wasn't -- -- I don't know that.
Deadlines the -- was somehow lifted from the civil war.
Prisoners -- forward corralled into groups and hope they crossed the line take -- For correspondents at the line -- -- -- keeps getting closer and closer used to get off and you hang.
We admit that and weeks on end.
You have a lot of times -- you think -- that was happening Christina Lamb like Marie Colvin writes for the Sunday times of London.
It's also owned by -- school.
Women have been covering wars since the 1930s.
Even today -- rare birds and a traditional male world.
I think we -- -- milk reports and much from the outset of the bang bangs actually.
Behind me tonight and small sixteen and how people actually carrying on the night.
When the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979.
It became another bloody chapter in a country torn apart by war.
Nearly 200 years.
I didn't think actually sit in the stands and I am very -- -- when.
And inexperienced 21 year old Christina left England for the brutal reality of combat.
-- and it was his balding and -- and one woman taking them.
-- -- -- that -- -- in the past summer from school year and certain things get through.
That the war.
Think that's happening -- we'll have done -- commitment to him.
As a war correspondent had -- particular obligation.
Absolutely if you -- soldier.
You're gonna come down.
-- anyone who is unnecessarily.
Risking their life.
Joseph Galloway was just 23 when he began the first of his -- tours in Vietnam for UPI.
In 1965 -- found himself with a little of the Vietnam war's first major battle in the central violence.
-- lieutenant general Hal Moore he documented the fight in their book we were soldiers once and young.
Since Vietnam -- has stayed close to the battlefield heading back to war over a half dozen times.
Is always sang we shall.
Raw -- of humanity in this is what you try and again.
And there's no other way to do things that go with them.
Go with them it's an adage that dates to the first war correspondent William Howard -- after the -- and -- found himself on the -- -- America.
This time was far from alone.
It's explosion was the -- People could read about what happened yesterday about what -- sort of happened two weeks ago.
Newspapers suddenly realized it was a little -- -- hunger out war -- during the civil war 600 reporters converged on the carnage.
One paper the new York herald put three men into the field and spent almost a million dollars.
He knows he -- sixty dollars.
Famed photographer Matthew Brady captured the agony of the civil war.
And sold pictures directly to a group public starved for information.
Photographs didn't become a regular fixture in newspapers.
Until after 1880.
When they did front page photographs like this changed war reporting.
For ever you want first coastal and -- she raised the pistol -- I raised my parents took a picture.
-- more -- returns Rupert Murdoch describes how his father expose the lies of World War I general.
-- following the American civil war.
Reporters flocked to the world's conflicts.
The Spanish American war began in 1998.
With full press fanfare -- front -- support.
Headlined stories made heroes out of Teddy Roosevelt.
And the exploits of his Rough -- it also gave rise to one of journalism's most notorious quotes.
It would -- those when these utilities get out of them and said to me pictures of the war.
The report -- -- rather commonwealth what was happening in the host replied I think so if you are euphoric that the development of the -- And this is an attitude of the American yellow journalism.
It was gold yellow because of the intense rivalry between Hearst and publisher Joseph -- The clash over this popular cartoon and one of the -- and yellow pit.
Through the fight Hearst and Pulitzer became known as the yellow kids.
And their sensational headlines and exaggerated stories became.
Hello as well to a pool didn't and I just have to be a war.
Wool war one began as the people's war -- dreams of honor in floor.
But it ended with a steel -- -- -- for non parallel death and suffering.
The Muster enough men to fight Britain had turned to -- empire.
Over ordered thousands of New Zealand and Australia joined up and shipped out for Europe's war -- cream.
-- they're very yeah animation that's trying to.
Of these and -- troops as they were called travelled 9000 miles -- -- here.
And the steep and rocky cliffs of the publicly peninsula and Turkey.
The end act boys land where -- British counterparts under the command of general sort.
His battle plan relies on the put the into the Turks and German allies.
And opening -- supply lines to Russia.
What was being reported in the Australian press about conditions.
For the Australia New Zealand commonwealth troops things were going well instead he would -- right things.
Was effective just -- Rupert Murdoch is the chairman of news court.
In 1915 at the age of thirty.
His father the Australian journalists Keith Murdock.
Went to deliberately to investigate problems of today and mail for the -- -- troops -- was shocked by what he saw.
Shocked by the -- generals in charge of the whole thing bordering.
Suicidal attacks the general staff wasn't great.
Now they're ships and drinking and at times and nobody wrote -- I -- that -- -- -- because you can only get that.
If they come -- gave you permission and you have to agree you would have been everything distance.
From these miserable approaches thousands of young men charged headlong into -- -- of enemy fire.
If -- gained little ground himself went over the top again and again.
Keith Murdock and another reporter Ellis Josh -- Bartlett set out tell the truth.
-- my father's idea.
That came up up and it was right.
To get a they had to get wood through that the political office who knocked it in the truth.
Distant from London Keith -- carried the letter as far as the French port of -- say.
When -- gets to Mars say he's confronted by intelligence office.
The British government seizes the world.
And and at that point that reconstruct the letter.
ProLogis said but news of the disaster at the look didn't make it immediately into the newspapers this was not war reported that the public.
Technically in -- breach set in the censorship rules.
But it was only really reporting to the political masters with Keith -- eyewitness account -- a profound effect.
They sort they -- -- -- cabinet I.
Had a special media and the wall cabinet which resulted in the recall of general album and an evacuation treatments and.
The -- of New Zealand and Australia suffered over 30000 casualties on the -- of the peninsula.
All told the battle took over a 120000.
Strict censorship meant that little world war one's misery was reported at time.
And for years and still -- trench warfare 65 million men were called -- arms eight million were killed.
Still politically in the willingness of two journalist to record the roots of a powerful argument for independent world record.
-- -- a chance to talk to dad about how you felt about.
Bringing about change for saving thousands of lives as a consequence -- As I remember.
You know I guess it was -- -- right after the event he was telling me how he was still.
Heavily criticized in Britain -- it -- military establishment.
But how he self.
It completely -- for these conscience.
More deadlines on the battlefield when war stories continues.
Surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese forced the United States -- -- to the -- war.
-- really dark days allied victory was far from certain.
I have nothing you the blood.
Israeli's bodyguard of lies the truth to be protected by voting.
He felt that the certainly morally OK to lie if necessary -- In the war well war specials about the war without -- -- In this war of national survive truth in pictures at times a casual.
Hollywood -- to work producing propaganda film.
This account with the bombing of Pearl Harbor -- -- footage with act fast Japanese.
Dwight David Eisenhower put it simply public opinion wins wars.
Even in a climate of suppressing losses are enhancing victories -- correspondents did good work.
-- like Ernie -- Edward.
This is -- know speaking from a there were more German planes over the coast of Britain today than at any times and.
I wanted to go hopes that there.
I wanted to get him.
And mojo hit a five year old Paul Green arrived in North Africa in 1943.
His paper was the stars and stripes -- -- -- The military.
You know there -- censorship.
Various places that happened in some sense that he.
The best adapted to the ball really -- green was there -- boots terribly important that they get an eyewitness report.
-- -- With the soldiers but for Americans back home.
The words and images came with a price.
The casualty rate for photographers and correspondence was four times greater than the military in general.
-- -- -- And they -- you have to be in certain place for your story now.
-- -- can.
-- get mad as hell did you get killed but there -- differently you're right.
General Obie O'Brien got a taste of combat journalism in the Pacific.
Marine Corps correspondent it was one of thousands of uniformed reporters photographers and cameramen how many days from the day you write the story would period -- I don't -- week our staff went.
And that's everybody picked.
The only ones on the spot doing -- -- consider them the early and heads.
Has the tide of war turned the world -- -- the sacrifices.
Being made their free.
September of 43 this photograph was published in life magazine the first time -- American dead were seen by the public.
It was a feeling towards the end of the war that we have to the elimination -- the -- push to let's finish true.
The nation what some of its citizens have sacrificed in order to.
-- this war to war produced iconic images perhaps the most famous Joseph Rosenthal.
Flag raising them on Iwo jima.
-- -- -- -- -- Well I didn't signal.
They'll and as they were.
Sticking they the pole in the rocks there are about to raise -- somebody -- here it goes eyewitness combat artist also flourished during World War II.
It's generally as a retired Marine Corps for his book art of war documents the history of combat our -- Have a painting called the price.
My great artists timely and Pelé didn't and he happened to look up just as a ring.
I'm sure got hit with a mortar and it was harmful.
-- -- It was an effect that a photograph could never of gotten.
If it doesn't repulse.
Me in intensified -- the agony of what these heroes.
These heroes went through.
Coming up -- recording of an amphibious assault.
The Academy Award earned under fire you won't believe what you see in here.
When the troops of the -- of warm.
We report correspondent held until -- it was their -- side.
Back -- a -- -- that they've been very very.
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Okay.
-- is -- -- radio equipment describing.
Minute by minute step by step approach to.
I don't want him thinking right.
Right no matter if.
It was a tremendously.
To set his battlefield recordings are preserved at The Library of Congress.
41 year old Oklahoman norm -- was a combat -- when he was assigned to cover the marine landings.
And -- fiercely held Japanese island of RO.
-- -- -- and -- realizing that.
I knew that I had a great deal of responsibility.
As you can see from this riveting film he stood up in the line of fire even when talk Marines were pumping down.
I could taking pictures.
I think those three young and dumb to worry about them.
That's captured on film some of the Pacific war's most intense and brutal combat.
Perhaps put it was so compelling reasons to make the documentary.
With the Marines at.
One -- 1944.
During World War II allied -- course.
-- Operated within the parameters of censorship rules third in the in the Second World War.
-- -- no excesses that claim being all victories and -- losses a lot of the horror of the war particularly in the Pacific was held.
But there's no question that bullet correspondence.
You beside -- overall I think probably we'll -- More accurately report.
The -- any other.
-- at the height of the Vietnam War more than a hundred million American television sets were available to show the news from the battlefields.
It was a living room war Vietnam I think was an aberration.
If the administration -- show how tough.
Americans being on a minute and -- -- -- -- don't support you went out there is a correspondent you're credited you get what you wanted to none of the reporting from Vietnam.
Which was fairly one side.
We went to a foreign government and so on -- we did not him much about what was happening side.
At its peak over 600 journalists were covering Vietnam.
The military also invested men and -- in order to record the war men like Ohio State student Christopher Johnson and I wish.
-- photo journalism classes that was my -- that time and one -- it occurred to me that maybe what I had to do is.
Go ahead and enlist in the army if you -- listed -- three years.
But the military would train you in the specialty.
That you requested.
Johnson became one of 300000.
Soldiers trained by the -- signal or -- -- pictures.
Military's role in documenting war is easy to overlook.
The fact is what the museum wars past -- -- like troops not independent journalists.
-- little town dominating the main highway demo.
One of the films that they showed was a great thing for more true there's one scene where a guy gets up and throws and grenade.
And then he -- down again just that.
And the photographer stays up real like.
So that's the plan.
-- spent fifteen months in the bush recaptured the terror.
And the mundane of a soldier's life in Vietnam.
But being in uniform didn't rob him of a journalist's curiosity or the willingness to bend the rules in search of the truth.
We heard that there was some bad stuff going on fire sport baseball -- -- and so we headed up north.
And the routine -- she would have to check in with the public information office again they just said.
They didn't care -- being -- up.
Jensen and his team went to report any.
As a result there are photographs and film of that desperate battle.
A battle the military was trying to keep quiet why does it matter because 75 men died it.
Nearly 2000 war war stories aired an episode about the man who fought and died there were other times -- -- Special situation look photography.
And the idea documenting something important.
You get hired Britons are impressively sixth here what did you know about you.
I learned -- from my private.
Nick and brother was killed in 1965.
While on assignment in the Mekong Delta it.
The loss in his own close calls didn't deter him -- it three times yet would you be medevac along with the other US military.
By the US accomplished that they've been popular -- take a vacation.
Enough up that idea -- populated we can't make it out you know Elizabeth -- -- right away.
That -- -- -- are you making you crazy.
That -- took one of warfare is more shocking photographs.
Meet the little girl in the picture next on war stores.
The Communist launched the -- offense.
Tens of thousands of north Vietnamese army soldiers in Viet Cong guerrillas ferociously attacked over a hundred cities and towns in south Vietnam.
-- the fierce fight much -- -- on city streets 11100 Americans and 3900 south Vietnamese troops were killed.
-- NBA sniper was corner.
-- He such an incompletion in the -- this guy out the door they just grabbed from.
Slightly from a second story so we've just seen them that we start following him walk on the street and out of nowhere to my left -- -- this -- walking.
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- I raise my parents took a picture.
-- since you shot him.
He walked towards me and -- They killed many of my men and many of your people.
See the demery you.
They grab this guy after he shot another guy and I kind of tell people if you were.
Him at that time and you know you would of pulled the trigger the full page picture added more fuel to the anti war movement.
Execution received the 1969.
Pulitzer Prize something that still amazes Adams.
-- -- but joking I still get it.
I think it puts picture of a -- for running down -- it is.
I've seen great pictures taken -- there -- -- better than live picture.
If I can't with a lot of resentment at -- that a man.
And it took that picture that -- -- ball federal right.
And -- -- big of a boat that black smoke was from the they've yet they've fine thank you all children running and just.
And the fifth hole although -- do you do you remember hearing the sound of fighting that morning.
Yes -- I mean I just I remember that at ten boys doing the going to be -- suddenly some of the fine freeway.
And then the fire.
This group my problems.
And I saw the -- and I keep grinding and and -- I -- I was too hot to hot.
He -- some water to drink.
And and then he tried to help can be part of water hole.
When he did you remember seeing.
Nick taking the photo I saw so many Thornton fan I didn't know anything.
After photographing the south Vietnamese air strike -- its aftermath.
-- used his car to rush Kim and several others to the hospital.
Are -- each will be doing -- I think it can't.
IC FO TN media we have I don't -- -- -- -- valued at what trouble you know front page tomorrow but he's.
I'm so grateful that the sentiment.
We -- ever angry at him for taking a picture sometime I I I say I wish that picture of not taking.
I -- I moved everybody.
Kim spent fourteen -- in hospitals recovering from a -- But the photograph -- to being used as an anti American propaganda tool.
And forced her to forfeit her dream of becoming a doctor and finally.
Wanted to and I won today I get face to disguise.
And -- got -- I knew where you.
And when I became Christian in 1908 to ten Christmas 199010.
And single and I took me and he gave me -- from hate.
Anger and -- And I -- want to anymore.
For his part -- -- that the age of 22 became the first Vietnamese and the youngest photographer to win the Pulitzer Prize.
In 1992 Kim found herself flying from Moscow to Cuba during the refueling stop in Canada she defected and begin a new life.
I can use that picture.
To prove to promote peace.
People who know.
How horrible we can be we can change the -- which.
We can -- -- and then I realized that that paint chip is -- pain -- -- powerful gift for me.
And a war correspondent prevent atrocity seen militias just went with machetes and you know fires all over town find out next on war stories.
In the wake of the Vietnam War at.
And so later -- but never before in the history of war report.
As a group of correspondent Mike -- -- distortion.
And lies and infants.
Told the home.
The days of total access and free movement for journalists were -- 1983 Grenada journalists were barred from the island until three days after the invasion.
1989 Panama strict control by the military led to coverage that some say created the illusion of a bloodless battle it.
1990 Iraq invades Kuwait and a lot of it appears like -- do it.
The in stride person who.
It has -- unreality about.
In the wake of the.
First gulf war the military realized that excluding the -- might have been a mistake.
The conference was called in veteran war correspondent Joseph Galloway was there and they had all the.
Division commanders marine army.
One side of the table and thus on the other and those guys especially the army guys were just sitting there looking -- -- they've just -- remarkable 100 hours campaign.
And won't all just incredible kind battles desert they didn't have a single photo film not a picture hope.
Not a -- In the second ago they decided the military's side of the things -- -- Managed -- lead they wouldn't cooperate -- Not getting.
Mission accomplished Fox News Greg Kelly Covert Operation Iraqi Freedom with the army's third infantry division.
We -- report and show whatever was we -- seeing coming.
That's terrific income.
Couldn't have a future operations.
Couldn't show photographs of -- enemy soldiers from world.
Friendly casualties up close and large it's worked.
However shortly -- cross Euphrates River an American M one tank was.
Taking out the evil by rocket propelled grenade it was on live television and an officer in the vehicle in front of -- sort of pointing out.
Frantic putts -- you know like this.
And it was not the time -- the plays for arguments that we we turned off or pick our picture.
We arrived at our objective they told us that.
Obviously felt that everybody back home got -- about an American tank burning on live television.
Didn't expect to see that but he.
That is one of the things that happens in war time to time so it's it's a danger preventing everybody was playing by the ground rules we -- until they said kill the picture it's part of the story.
It Campbell also ordered sprint all you can.
It was quite content to be on the US side traveling with -- US forces.
Is that because I have blinders on -- and I think that Iraq was unique in this.
The ticketed television media was dazzled by the -- that -- much it was real time war from both sides didn't work out.
And you back to the problem Russell whose side should a greater effort been made report about the other side.
And -- I think there's there's a new school of journalism.
I was says you must be totally objective and dispassionate about everything including your own country's interest.
And I think -- -- to file is wrong for a reporter to feel.
And affection for the troops was just in the wrong amount of fuel.
You're an American covering a war and America fighting Americans.
Futures at stake.
Of course you're on that side now.
-- -- -- We were objected -- that we've reported the good along with the bad.
That our unit -- we also talked about -- -- friendly fire.
Killing of innocent civilians.
Also said that we were biased.
Definitely pipes and he wanted night.
I knew it's gonna go badly wrong way.
I landed on an empty plane and the airport is absolutely crushed to people fighting their way on to get on the airplane.
In 1989 Louis Coleman went into the Egypt over contentious election being absorbed by the United Nations residents of East Timor voted in defendants.
The worst movies -- for the individual army moved in the crushed them.
As the violence spread to UN evacuated all but one.
-- they're gonna leave behind these fifteen children.
-- -- every UN compound that was over run.
They got the UN staff.
Europeans really -- and the UN and non staff.
With the UN preparing to leave their lead compound marine made her stay and I'm afraid that's why not just -- auto workers at times.
Have you on education and I'm gonna talk everybody racially journalist in fact what network means that if he went back.
He's an Angel.
There's there's no doubt it's Chris.
I I would do it again I guess the answer -- and I'm not going -- state.
Motorola will look at it.
And that preventive controls look.
Almost two years after saving those lives -- found herself trying to see who own it was in April you.
And gone through northern through -- which is the -- area.
And which is essentially.
No journalist has been 46 years.
Sri Lanka has been rocked by civil war for more than twenty years as Tamil forces -- independents.
Very very brutal -- both sides and it was getting back out but I was injured guys that are crossing the fields -- And I think if -- Flares go up and I'm.
And that and that's just terrifying so I just hit the ground.
In the dark of night we heard soldiers moving -- I was on injured and filling out journalist's journalist at which point they launched.
It probably -- like grenades.
Which hit about four feet.
-- this is just stupid place to die.
Suffering severe head wounds -- he was stabilized -- -- local military hospital.
She later have more surgery in New York but never regained the site in her left side.
It was a half as sharp went through and actually -- to -- the brain did you have any regrets about.
Experience I eight don't have regrets not doing when I'm doing.
-- -- was recuperating in the New York hotel room service delivered a gift.
For me for vodka Martinis whenever favorite drinks were -- collaborations.
Some of the people she's safe and he's.
We're -- slightly back.
You're never gonna get.
And we are going if you acknowledge.
Here I think fear comes later and you -- -- total.
-- was -- glorified in a way that overshadowed the carnage but I'd -- -- this war has always been hell.
The rise of the war correspondent photographer and producer has awakened the public conscience and knowing the sacrifices and suffering.
Makes us even more careful about the battles we choose it also reminds us of the men and women who gave everything.
So that we may live free the journalists who meet their deadlines on the battlefield.
Of a war story of their own.
That deserves to be told I'm Oliver North good night.
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