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Back -- microphone Richard Muller a professor of physics at University of California Berkeley doctor Muller is a and -- -- -- your professor best selling author of physics for future presidents and the instant.
His latest book is energy for future president's -- science behind the headlines.
And not to motivate them and I'm once again we appreciate it very much.
Are delighted to be the last time we talk to you were just.
You had accepted that there is global warming.
May have actually a little further and -- you believe it's human made -- -- -- that was the your evolution.
On this whole issue where you start out.
Well I turned out being doubtful about whether global warming really existed.
Hi there -- issues raised by skeptics that were valid -- -- -- data that.
That -- been raised doubts about what to do word we're we're correct about it about normal for low.
Analyzing that data we look at all of these effects and decided that -- warming was real.
But in the last three to six months.
We found and I have to give credit to Robert Brody who is the young scientists.
Who really develop the optimal at this school way of -- have analyzing the data.
We were able to use essentially all of the old data -- much much more than other people that used.
And push the record -- -- 21753.
Before the American revolution.
How we -- using data that -- collected by Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson.
And when we did this we found this long record and we can look at it.
And heed to what extent we're volcanoes with mob rule for the cooling of that period.
To what extent -- the ocean currents responsible to what extent was the variation in the -- -- responsible.
And the amazing thing they came out was that the warming.
That best match by far what do you mean close corporate -- -- Well let me ask you why wasn't this discovered so what do you come to this sooner.
Well I think we had to -- the data back beyond what people -- done before.
Last time I spoke to I think we've gotten back to about 1850.
But having this -- -- to be able to identify different spots identify.
-- that the volcanoes and and bring out.
Oh what was the human component -- and quite frankly it was a big -- to me when we discovered.
That does does this single thing that had to pay that much better than anything else was the carbon dioxide.
Now you have been one of things it is -- -- twister -- is.
You have been funded by the Coke Brothers or by the Coke charitable foundation.
-- territory and you know they have been at the forefront of climate.
Change denial it seems so it seems odd.
-- they have funded this of obviously -- as a scientist you have your integrity you're not gonna come up with something you don't believe in but it did do the Coke Brothers have an agenda and if they.
Have they withdrawn funding a reacted at all to the -- -- -- what.
No no just the opposite is -- -- cleanly from the beginning that they they -- -- us because we properly recognize that there -- issues that had to be addressed.
And all the wanted to do was have the science straightened out so so we were happy to accept funding from them.
There were no constraints they didn't get a particular data before we submitted papers for publication.
Now you've discovered -- two and have.
Two and a half degree raise rise in temperature.
What causes this what's what specifically do we know.
He's leading well we know that there is -- it's caused by explosive volcanic eruptions but this rise.
Comes about from the -- the human emissions of carbon dioxide.
How what happens is carbon dioxide in the atmosphere tends to -- he'd -- like a blanket traps heat on on your bed at night.
And because of that you know someone is constant the end she's staying here longer and it causes this rise is what's called global warming.
It's been small so far but we know that carbon dioxide is going to increase in the future at least.
Who hope -- that's a pretty good projection based on the growing economy of of China and India.
And based on that we can now project.
That the warming will get much more severe.
You say for example Hurricane Katrina cannot be attributed to global warming.
Yeah that is a lot of things that that are mistakenly attributed that parking Katrina was only category three hurricane when it.
It just happen to be the first one that -- New Orleans so I'll let you think global warming can somehow -- the hurricanes had New Orleans.
That if there are many category three storms and -- category five went -- to people wanted to it was only category.
Are there any of the weather conditions were having nurtured -- to global warming.
No no I this -- to -- from people -- which interpreted to future what -- data partner if you didn't.
Conducted earlier breaking up here on the phone a biker shorts happening we're losing you.
-- -- -- -- we -- -- -- let's see if we can get the better connected to him.
Don't know and have a mini maybe that was global warming that -- Williams -- you now you aren't -- of this better a little better -- -- -- -- -- a global warming issue.
-- you know that most of these things that are carrying recently.
Are things that are more attributable to heat waves.
That the -- so big yet still last year at the warmest in the United States ever.
It happens have been not warm around the globe and it cooled a bit from from previous years.
So I worry a little bit about everybody's commuting everything that's bad in the weather to global warming and I think people when they hear that.
They tend to lose to to lose faith and science says and we should not exaggerate.
Well -- but the earth is warming up -- be very slowly.
At this rate what we expect 506000 years and.
I had to -- that well so we can expect a rise.
Degrees Fahrenheit and that that that worries me.
Humans homo sapiens have never experienced -- client kind of temperature change that that he'll be the warmest has been.
During the era of homo sapiens.
Unfortunately most of that carbon dioxide is not come from the US -- -- -- have actually been going down.
Most of those emissions will be coming from -- world so we must develop techniques.
That can be adopted by China and India.
In order to reduce these emissions -- a huge coal emissions.
And if we don't what are the consequences of a couple of degrees -- and Verizon temperature.
The -- that.
Hard to say we know the -- pages -- only six to ten degrees cooler.
So minor changes of a few degrees so far it's been only three quarters one degree and that has not been very much.
But in the future we're projections several degrees -- -- accumulations of China and India China is now -- twice with the US we've got to adopt methods.
That they can afford to adopt to.
What -- the two and a half degrees referred to.
That's what we expect when the temperature went went to carbon dioxide levels we -- -- -- did double level.
And the way that will occur in fifty years -- apple -- in twenty years depends on the growth of China.
-- it's it's frightening though I mean you -- you know that you hear about the ice caps melting.
And all kinds of consequences even just a couple degree rise in temperature.
And weather now we can actually prevent a week doomed.
Well I think many of those things are exaggerated I think climate climate change temperature rise the bad thing.
We need to do something but those sort of things that we need to do our combination of energy efficiency.
You the conservation using less energy for -- for this same output.
And -- switch from coal.
To natural gas and unfortunately many environmentalists are opposing that I think that's actually essentials because.
Natural gas Hughes coo.
Produces 13 of the greenhouse -- compared to -- We've got to get China and India and the US switched from cold.
Natural Delhi also have to move toward -- and so -- -- you know -- I'm afraid that that something that is still much more expensive and the poorer countries of the world like China and India which will be producing most of the greenhouse gases.
-- already producing twice you know -- -- that the US will be.
By the end of this year but they can't afford that premium.
That that of solar and wind.
And until I believe that we've got to switch them to natural gas I just wish that environment those who recognize that that this is an essential part.
Along with energy conservation and the essential part it's it's it's it's solving this problem.
I think Brooke is going energy future presidents doctor Richard -- thank you -- -- times are tonight Pataki once again.
-- really appreciate it very much.
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